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Adjusting the shutter speed means changing how long your shutter stays open (aka how long the camera sensor is exposed to light). If you set your shutter speed to 1/60, the image will be brighter than if you set your shutter speed to 1/2000. In addition to bright vs. dark, shutter speed also has a lot to do with stopping (or not stopping!) motion. The longer the shutter stays open, the more motion is captured. With the same two examples, let's say your shutter is set to 1/60 at a sporting event. You might see too much blur as the athletes move quickly. But setting it to 1/2000 might be good enough to "stop" the action.
Changing the aperture means you are making the lens opening wider or narrower. A wider aperture (lower f-number) means more light as well as a narrower depth of field, while a narrower aperture (higher f-number) means less light as well as a wider depth of field. (Depth of field is the distance of focus in an image. Wide depth of field means lots of parts of the image are in focus. Narrow depth of field means only one part of the image is in focus while the rest are blurry.)
Increasing ISO allows you to work with less light. BUT! This is not a magic button to make the darkness in every low-light situation you are in go away. As you increase ISO, the image gets brighter, but quality gets lower. You will start to notice graininess in your images the higher you go.
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